Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,
Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597
Of Turbith of Antioch. Chap. 89.
Garcia a Lusitanian or Portingale phisition saith that Turbith is a plant hauing a roote which is neither great nor long: the stalk is of a span long, somtimes longer, a finger thicke, which creepeth in the grounde like Iuie, and bringeth foorth leaues like those of the marish Mallowe. The flowers be also like those of the Mallowe, of a reddish white colour: the outward rinde of whose rootes is that which is profitable in medicine, and is the same that is used in shops: they choose that for the best which is hollowe, & round like a reede, brittle, and with a smooth barke, as also that whereunto doth cleaue a congealed gum, which is saide to be gummosum, or gummie, and somewhat white. But, as Garcias saith, it is not alwaies gummie of his own nature; but the Indians bicause they see that out marchants note the best Turbith by the gumminessa, are woont before they gather the same, either to writhe or else lightly to bruse them, that the sappe or liquor may issue out; which rote being once hardned, they picke out from the rest to fell at a greater price. It is likewise made white, as the saide author sheweth, being dried in the sunne: for if it be dried in the shadowe, it waxeth blacke.
It groweth by the sea side, but yet no so neere that it may receiue the vaports that rise from the sea, but two or three miles distant, and that in untilled grounds rather moist then drie. It is founde in Cambaya, Surrates, in the Ile Dion, Bazaim, and in places hard adioining; also in Guzarates, where it groweth plentifully, from whence great abundance of its brought into Persia, Arabia, little Asia, and so into Europe: but that is preferred which groweth in Cambaya.
It is called of the Arabians, Persians, and Turks Turbith; and in Guzarata Barcaman: in the prouince Canara, in which is the citie Goa, Tiguar: likewise in Europe the learned call it by sundrie names, according to their seuerall fancies, which hath bred sundrie controuersies as it hath fallen out betweene the Hermodactules, and Turbith; the use and possession of which, we cannot seeme to want: but which plant is the true Turbith, we haue great cause to dubt. Some haue thought our Tripolium marinum, described in the former chapter to be Turbith: others haue supposed it to bee one of the Tythimales, but which kinde they knowe not: Guillandinus saith, that the roote of Tythimalus mirsinitis is the true Turbith; which caused L'Obelisus and Pena to plucke up by the rootes all the kindes of Tythimales, and drie them vry curiouslie; which when they had behed, and throughly tried, they founde it nothing so. The Arabians and halfe Moores that dwell in the east parts, haue giuen diuers names unto this plant: and as their wordes are dieuers, so haue they diuers significations; but this time Turbith they seeme to interpret to be any milkie root which foth strongly pure flegme, as this plant doth. So that as men haue thought good pleasing, themseues, they haue made many & diuers constructions which haue troubled many excellent learned men, to knowe whose roote is the true Turbith. But briegly to set downe mine opinion, not varying from the iudgement of men which are of great experience; I thinke assuredly that the roote of SScammonie of Antioch is the true & undoubted Turbith: one reason especially that mooueth me so to thinke is, for that I haue taken up the rootes of Scammonie which grewe in my garden, and compared them with the rootes of Turbith, betweene which I founde little or no difference at all.
The temperature and vertues.
The Indian phisitions do use it to purge flegme, to which if there be no ague they do adde ginger, otherwise they giue it without it in the broth of a chicken, and sometimes in faire water.
Mesues writeth, that Turbith is hot in the thirde degree; and that it voideth thicke tough flegme out of the stomacke, chest, finewes, and out of the furthermost parts of the bodie: but (as he saith) it is flowe in working, and troubleth and ouerturneth the stomacke: and thefore ginger, masticke, and other spices are to be mixed with it; also oile of sweete almondes, or almondes themselues, or sugar, least the bodie with the use heereof shoulde pine and fall away. Others temper it with dates, sweete almonds, and certaine other things, making thereof a composition (that the apothecaries call an Electuarie) which is named --- common in shops, and in continuall use among expert phisitions.
There is giuen at one time of this Turbith one dram (more or lesse) two at the most: but in the decoction, or in the infusion three or sower.