Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,
Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597
Of the Scarlet Oke. Chap. 30.
Although Theophrastus hath made mention but of one of these Holme or Hollie Okers onely, yet hath the later age set downe two kindes thereof; one bearing the scarlet graine, and the other onely the Acorne; which thing is not contrary to Dioscorides his opinion, for he intreateth of that which beareth the Acorne in his first booke among ---- or the Okes; and the other he describeth in hi fourth booke under the title --- or Coccus baphice.
The oke which beareth the scarlet graine is a small tree and at euery corner one sharpe prickle, in maner of the smoother Holly: among which commeth sometimes (but not often) small Acornes, standing in little cups or husks, armed with prickes as sharpe as thornes, and of a bitter taste. Besides the Acornes, there is found cleauing unto the woody branches, a certaine kinde of berried, or rather an excrescence, of the substace of the Oke apple, & of the bignes of a Pease, at the first white, and of the colour of ashes when they be ripe, in which are engendred little Maggots, which seeme to be without life, untill they seele the heate of the sunne, and then they creepe, and seeke to flie away. ut people of the coutrie (which make a gaine of them) fo watch the time of their flying, euen as we do Bees, which they then take & put into a linnen bag, wherein they shake and boule them up and downe untill they be dead, which they do make up into great lumpes oftentimes, and likewise sell them to Diers, and such like apart, euen as they were taken foorth of the bag, whereof is made the most perfect Scarlet.
This Oke groweth in Languedocke, and in the countries thereabout, and also in Spaine: but it beareth not hte Scarlet graine in all places, but in those especially, which lie towards the Midland sea, and which be subject to the scorching heate of the sunne, as Carolus Clusius wittnesseth, and not there alwaies; for when the tree waxeth olde, it groweth to be barren. Then do the people cut and lop it downe, that after the young shootes have attained to two or three yeeres growth, it becommeth fruitfull againe.
Petrus Bellonius in his bookes of Singularities sheweth, that Coccus Baphicus or the Scarlet graine, doth growe in the Holy land, and neere to the lake which is called the Sea of Tiberides, and that upon little trees, whereby the inhabitants get great store of wealth, who separate the husks from the pulpe of Magots, and sell this being made up into bals or lumps, much decree than the emptic shels or husks.
On this graine also Pausanius hath made mention in his tenth booke, and sheweth, that the tree which bringeth foort this graine, is not great, and also groweth in Phocis, which is a countrie in Macedonia neere to the Boeotians, not far from the mountaine Parnassus.
Theophrastus weiteth, that --- or the Scarlet oke is a great tree, and riseth up to the height of the common Oke: amongst which writers there is some contratictic. Petrus Bellonius reporteth it is a little tree, and Theophrastus a great one, which may chaunce according to the foyle and climate: for that upon the stonie mountaines cannot grow to that greatnes, as those in the fertill grounds.
The little graines or berries which growe about the boughes, --- in to appeere especially in the spring, when the Southwest windes do blow. The flowers fall and are ripe in Iune, togither with the Maggots growing in them, which receiuing life by the heate of the sunne, fo foorthwith flie away (in manner of a moth or Butterflie) unlesse by the care and diligence of the keepers, they be killed by much and often shaking them togither, as aforesaid.
The tree or shrub hath his leaues alwaies greene: the Acornes be very late before they be ripe, seldome before new come up in their place.
The Scarlet Oke is called in Greeke ---: in Latine Ilex: the later writers Ilex Coccigera, or coggifera: in Spanish coscoia: for want of a fit English name, we haue thought good to christen it by the name of Scarlet Oke, or Scarlet Holme Oke: for Ilex is named of some in English Holme, which signifieth Holly or Hulner. But this Ilex, as well as those that follow, might be called Holme Oke, Hulner Oke, or Holly Oke, for difference from the shrub or hedge tree Agrifolium, which is simply called Holme, Holly and Huluer.
The graine or berried that serueth to die with, is roperly called in Greeke ---: in Latin Coccus infectoria, or Coccum infectorium: Pliny also nameth it cusculium, or as most do reat it Quisquilrum; the same author saith, that it is likewise named Scolecion, or Maggot berrie.
The Arabians and the Apothecaries do acknowledge it by the name of Chesmes, Chermes and Kermes. They are deceiued who thinke that Chesmet doth differ from Infectorium Coccum: it is called in Italian Grano di tinctori: in Spanish Grana de tintoreros: in hight dutch Scharlachbeer: in French Vermillon and Graine d'escarlate: in English after the Dutch Scarlet Berrie, or Scarlet graine, and after the Apothecaries worde Coccus Baphicus, the Maggot within is that which is named Cutchonele as most do deeme.
The Acorne or fruite hereof is called of diuers, as Theophrastus saith, --- Acylum,
The temperature and vertues.
This graine is astringent, and somethat botter, and also dry without sharpenes and biting: therefore saith Galen it is good for great wounds and finewes that be hurt, if it be laide thereon; some temper it with vineger; others with Oxymell, or syrupe of vineger.
It is commended and giuen by the later Phisitions to staie the menses: it is also counted among those simples which be cordials and good to strenghten the hart. Of this graine that noble and famous confection Alkermes made by Arabians, hath taken his name, which many do highly commend against the infirmities of the hart: notwithstanding it was chiefely deuised in the beginning for purging of melancholy, which thing is plainly declared by the great quantitie of Lapis Lazulus added thereto: and therefore seeing that this stone hath in it a venemous qualitie, and likewise a propertie to purge melancholie, it cannot of it selfe be good for the hart, but the other things be good, which be therefore added, that they might desende the hart from the hurts of this stone, and correct the malice thereof.
This composition is commended against the trembling and shaking of the hart, and for swounings and melancholike passions, and sorrow proceeding of no euident cause: it is reported to recreate minde, and to make a man merric and ioyfull.
It is therefore good against melancholicke diseases, vaine imaginations, sighings, greese and sorrowe without manifest cause, for that it purgeth away melancholike humours: after this maner it may be comfortable for the hart, and delightfull to the minde, in taking away the materiall cause of sorrow: neither can it otherwise strenghthen a wake and feeble hart, unlesse this stone called Lapis Cyaneus be quite left out.
Therefore he that is purposed to use this composition against beatings and throbbings of the hart and swounings, and that not as a purging medicine, shall do well and wisely by leauing out the stone Cyaneus: for this being taken in a little waight, or small wuantitie, cannot purge at all, but may in the meane season trouble and torment the stomacke, and withall thorow his sharpe and venemous qualitie (if it be oftentimes taken) be very offensiue to the guts and intrails, and by this meanes bring more harme then good.
Moreouer it is not necessarie, no nor expedient, that the bristle died with Conhenele called Chermes, as Apothecaries tearme it, should be added to this composition: for this bristle is not died without auripigmentum, called also Orpiment, and other pernitious things ioined therewith, whose poisonsome qualities are added to the iuices, togither with the colour, if either the bristle or died silke be boiled in them.
The berries of the Cochenele must be taken by themselves, which alone are sufficient inough to die the iuices, and to impart unto them their vertue: neither is it likewise needfull to boile the raw bristle togither with the graines, as most Phisitions thinke: this maybe left out, for it maketh nothing at all for the strenghthening of the hart.