22.7.09

Wähäsen kewätkuoseista.

Päivän Uutiset 95, 25.4.1888

Kun kewätaika nyt alkaa, omat waatetehtaat ja kuosipuodit Pariisissa täydessä toimessaan.

Täksi kewääksi on "keksitty" uusi wäri, n. k. hedelmän wihreys, (fruit-vert) joka on wiheriänharmaata, ja jota ei saa waihettaa tähän asti kuosina olleeseen sinisenharmaaseen.

Hatut saawat kapotti-muodon wähän enemmän à la diadem ja warustetaan sywillä silkki- tai harso-poimuilla, ja oikean siwun alasyrjään pannaan wähän tummemman wärinen sulka kuin hattu on, kaikki hedelmänwiheriäistä wäriä, sen pitäisi sopiman melkein jokaiselle.

Hedelmänwiheriäiset puwut niiyttäwät parhaimmilta tehtyinä yksiwärisestä, mutta kuitenkin kuosinmukaisesta kankaasta. Hameet, nyöreillä kirjailtuina, tulewat tänä kewännä kaikkein uusimman kuosisiksi.

Kankaista pidetään parhaimpana tuo sangen soma n. k. Lady Harstorf, hauskan näköinen, englantilainen malli, jossa on kapeita monen wärisiä juowia.

Kaunistakaa Kotinne.

Lounas 96, 12.12.1890

Keinona kietoa ihmissydäntä on kiinnittää se kotiinsa ja siteittten wahwistamiseksi on koti tehtäwä niin hauskaksi, mukawaksi ja kauniiksi kuin mahdollista, ja löytyy tuhat tapaa aikaan saada tämä wähillä kustannuksilla, wähällä ajalla ja wähällä taidolla. Se nopeus, jolla me woimme koristaa kotimme, on suuri-arwoinen ja paljon enemmänkin pienet kustannukset.

Yksi näitä äärettömän monia keinoja siihen, jotka nyt owat naisten ja jopa poikain ja tyttöjenkin käytettawinä, on emaljoitsemis taito.

Se emalji, jota on helpoin käyttää, on äskettäin keksitty "Aspinall'in emailji". Sitä on yhtä helppo käyttää kuin tawallista wäriä ja tekee pinnan yhtä kauniin kowaksi ja kiiltäwäksi kuin mikä lakeeraus tahansa — Tuskinpa löytyy yhtään esinettä taloudessa, jota tällä ei woitaisi siistitä tai muuttaa niitä wiehättäwämmäksi koristeeksi. Muutamat naiset owat emaljoineet makuhuoneensa huonekalut siinä tarkotuksessa että ne sopusointuisiwat wärillään muutamiin kallisarwoisiin poimutelmiin, ja moni esine, olkoonpa kuinka wanha ja ruma tahansa, woidaan wähällä kustannuksella muuttaa uudeksi, somaksi esineeksi.

Luku hyödyllisiä keinoja, joilla Aspinallin emaljia woidaan käyttää, woitaisiin lukea äärettömiin saakka, tarwitsee waan alkaa ja yksi aate toisensa perästä syntyy wähemminkin nerokkaassa päässä. Saadakseen toimeen helppoja lahjoja on emailji werrattoman arwokas, kun jokainen wanha esine woidaan niin kaunistaa, että lahjan ikää ei koskaan woida huomata.

Jokainen, jota on käyttänyt herra Aspinall'in emaljia, osottaa kernaasti hänelle kiitostansa, ja ennemmin tai myöhemmin on warmaan herra Aspinall'ille jokaisessa hauskassa perheessä, missä yksi purkki hänen emaljiaan on auttanut werhoomaan paljon wiallisuuksia, pystytettäwä kiitollisuuden muistomerkki."

Edellä olewa kiittäwä lausunto on ollut luettawana eräässä italialaisessa lehdessä.

Täällä Porissa myöpi tätä näin kiitettyä koristus-ainetta kapteeni Oscar Heine, joka asuu kauppias Alfthanin talossa raastuwantorin kulmassa.

A Lost Art.

Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.

New Series.

Conducted by
William and Robert Chambers,
Editors of Chambers's Educational Course, 'Information For The People,' &c.

Volume XVI.

Nos. 382 to 417. July December, 1851.

Edinburgh:
Published by William and Robert Chambers,
and W. S. Orr, London.
1852.




Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. No. 411. New Series.
Saturday, November 15, 1851.

In No. 407 of this Journal there is an article entitled 'A Lost Art,' in which is mentioned the juggling trick of swallowing water, and then vomiting it again under the semblance of wine, &c. On reading it I remembered having read an explanation of this feat somewhere, and on examination found an account of it in an intelligent little book for its time, 'Experimental Philosophy, by Henry Power, Doctor of Physick. London, 1664.' His account, after describing the changes produced in vegetable infusions by acids, &c. is as follows: - 'By which ingenious commixtion of spirits and liquors did Floram Marchand, that famous waterfrinker, exhibit those rare tricks and curiositys at London of vomiting all kind of liquors at his mouth. For, first, before he mounts the stage, he always drinks in his private chamber, fasting, a gill of the decoction of Brasil; tehn, making his appearance, he presents you with a pailful of lukewarm water, and twelve or thirteen glasses, some washed in vinegar, others with oyl of tartar and oyl of vitriol; then he drinks four-and-twenty glasses of the water, and carefully taking up the glasse which was washed with oyl of tartar, he vomits a reddish liquor into it, which presently is brightened up and tinged into perfect and lovely claret. After this first assay, he drinks six or seven glasses more (the better to provoke his vomiting), as also the more to dilute and empale the Brasil decoction within him; and then he takes a glass rinsed in vinegar, and vomits it full, which instantly, by its acidity, is transcoloured into English beer, and vomiting also at the same time into another glass - which he washes in fair water - he presents the spectators with a glass of paler claret or Burgundian wine; then drinking again as before, he picks out the glass washed with oyl of vitriol, and, vomiting a faint Brasil-water into it, it presently appears to be sack - and perchance if he washed the one half of the glass with spirit of sack, it would have a faint odour and flavour of that wine also. He then begins his carouse again, and drinking fifteen or sixteen glasses, till he has almost extinguished the strength and tincture of his Brasil-water; he then vomits into a vinegar-glass again, and that presents white wine. At the next disgorgement - when his stomach is full of nothing but clear water, indeed, which he has filled so by the exceeding quantity of water which at every interval he frinks. he then deludes the spectators by vomiting rose-water, angelica-water, and cinnamon-water, into those glasses which have been formerly washed with those spirits. And thus was that famous cheat performed, and indeed acted with such a port and floweing grace by that Italian bravado, that he did not onely strike an admiration into vulgar heads and common spectators, but even into the judicious and more knowing part of men, who could not readily find out the ingenuity of his knavery. From this it would appear that the method used was the same with that of the Wizards of the present day; with this difference - that, in accordance with the tastes of a ruder age, they formerly used their stomachs as receptacles for the liquor, whereas in the present more fastidious age they are contented with a bottle. The art of vomiting and spouting the water would of course require considerable practice, and I should think would not be very conducive to the health of the operators. - From a Correspondent.

Complementary Colours.

Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.

New Series.

Conducted by
William and Robert Chambers,
Editors of Chambers's Educational Course, 'Information For The People,' &c.

Volume XV.

Nos. 366 to 391. January-June, 1851.

Edinburgh:
Published by William and Robert Chambers,
and W. S. Orr, London.
1851.


Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. No. 385. New Series.
Saturday, May 17, 1851.

It is well known that the combination of two complementary colours produces white; and this is usually shown in lectures by employing two glasses - one of a red, and the other of a green colour, the tints of which, alhough of considerable intensity, entirely disappear during the simultaneous interposition of the glasses between the eye and the source of light. M. Maumené several years since arrived at the same result by using coloured liquors, and especially by mixing a solution of cobalt with one of nickel, both perfectly pure, and so diffused that their colour is nearly of equal intensity. The rose-red colour of the cobalt is completely destroyed by the green of the nickel, even in concentrated solutions, and the mixed liquid remains colourless.
- Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., Mars 1850: Philos. Mag., No. 244.

New Art of Silvering Glass.

Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.

New Series.

Conducted by
William and Robert Chambers,
Editors of Chambers's Educational Course, 'Information For The People,' &c.

Volume XV.

Nos. 366 to 391. January-June, 1851.

Edinburgh:
Published by William and Robert Chambers,
and W. S. Orr, London.
1851.


Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. No. 369. New Series.
Saturday, January 25, 1851.


Of all the fabrics that now contend for the palm of beauty in art manufacture, glass is at once the most elegant and the most superb. Coloured or gilt, our modern works in this pure and fragile material begin to excite just admiration, owing especially to the almost perfect quality of British glass. This circumstance has enabled out glass-stainers, with their improved artistical taste and chemical skill, to compete with and distance completely the antique productions in stained-glass, some of which have long remained the wonders of art, from their imperishable quality of colour an quaint expression of character or design. In common coloured ornaments, formed of glass pervaded by colour, the Bohemians have long eclipsed the world, and we had till lately no expectation of being able to compete with them in any department of ornamental glass manufacture, although their material, as stated in the 'Revue Polytechnique' is understoof to hide its imperfections under the cloak of the colour interfused. A recent invention by Mr Hale Thomson will henceforth place the British manufacturer far ahead of all such competition in the production of ornamental glass. It consists in coating the inner or reverse surface with pure silver. To this process it is that we owe the gorgeous orbs that begin to appear in London and Edinburgh drawing-rooms as pendants to the gaselier. The exhibition of the varied results and applications of this novelty in art is, however, still comparatively unknown, being almost limited in London to the private friends of the patentees, and in Edinburgh only displayed at one establishment in Princes Street (Mr Millar's). The extraordinary reflective power of the surface, and its capacity to throw back rays without more cleaning or polishing than might be required by a window-pane or common tumbler, render the process specially applicable for the reflectors used in railway signal lamps and in lighthouses. It is contemplated even to employ it in the construction of astronomical instruments, and not only so, but already have its extraordinary powers in the multiplication and reflection of light been rendered available in surgery as an important auxiliary in conducting the most difficult operations.

The dull amalgam applied to ordinary looking-glasses, and which derives nearly all its lustre from the glass, the back being opaque, and devoid of radiance, can bear no comparison with this silvering, which is effectually beyond the reach or possibility of being tarnished or impaired, except by the destruction of the object into whose supersicies it is interfused. A sparkling warmth emanated from the metallic radiance, contrasted with the Bohemian glass is merely pretty or tinselly. The gorgeous glow of the antique Venetian glass, the secret of which is now a lost art, seems here restored; but even the Venetian absorbed the light, and before its exquisite beauties could be described, had to be held up, whereas the English silvered glass flashes back the light, and at night, when surrounding objects are obscured in partial gloom, is then most radiant and conspicuous. Professor Donaldson, in a recent address to the Royal Architectural Society, in advocating the use of this gorgeous material in shop fronts - which would give us indeed brystal commercial palaces, and exlipse in London the --- of Augustus at Rome, of having found it built of brick, and left it of marble - pointed out that, independently of the silvering, many of the tints produced are entirely new, and such as no combination of prismatic hues had hitherto disclosed to the most experienced colourist. The nomenclature of art has in fact at present no vocabulary expressive of these novel results. But purples, sapphires, pinks, vermilions, pearls, bronzes, and every chromatic hue from brightest steel to deepest gold, are thrown up in this new argentine reflection. Another characteristic never, according to the German prints, attempted since the discovery of glass itself by Hermes the Syrian, distinguishes this manufacture - that is, embossing. The thing, it is true, is an optical delusion. To the touch, the apparenty raised or sunken surface, dead or frosted, cut or burnished, does not exit. But the eye nevertheless beholds such results.

Crystal silver cups, goblets lined with burnished gold, epergnes, candelabra, wine-coolers, salts, tazzas, ink-stands, ewers, sugar-boxes, and all sorts of ornaments, are the objects to which we have seen this invention applied. Candlesticks it seems impossible to distinguish from actual silver; and looking-glasses, with frames made in the same piece, are warmly praised by the Liverpool press, where it has been stated that frame and glass together, composed of embossed and variegated glass, have also been prepared expressly from the residences of certain eminent London artists from designs furnished by themselves, and are perhaps a greater source of astonishment than any of the smaller achievements in chimney, toilet, or table ornaments. But the mirror globes which we have already mentioned are in their exquisite simplicity the gems of the whole collection. Of all sizes, of all colours; from two to thirty inches in diameter; from the capacity of half a pint to that of forty gallons, those magnificent mirror balls, places on the shoulders of an Atlas or under the talons of an eagle of bronze, are at once the type and glory of this exquisite art.

Irtautuwa kalkkirappaus.

Savo-Karjala 53, 10.7.1888

Tuo tuulen, pakkasen ja kostean ilman waikutuksessa olewa kalttirappaus rakennuksissa ja muureissa hywin usein halkeilee ja irroittuukin. Kuten tunnettu, koetetaan tätä estää jättämällä rappauksen pinnan silittämättömäksi, s. o. ryhmyiseksi, joten ilmalle jääpi suurempi pinta-ala sen kuiwaamiseen. Täten on kalkki
tilaisuudessa imemään ilmasta suuremman määrän hiilihappoa ja pikemmin kowenemaan. Mieluummin kumminkin toiwoisi rappauksen pinnan tasaiseksi, jos se sitten ei niin pahoin halkeilisi ja murtuisi. Eräs saksalainen sanomalehti kehoittaa tähän tarkoitukseen täyttämään eräänlaista sementtisekoitusta, jossa on 1 osa kalkkia, 2—4 osaa sementtiä ja 6—12 osaa hietaa. Ja yhä etuisampaa on, jos rappausta wielä muutamia kertoja kostutetaan weteen sulatetulla rautawihtrillillä. Neljännen kostuttamisen jälkeen, jos pinta ei enää ota tummaa, wiheriään wiwahtawaa wäriä, on silloin rappauksen pinta jo täynnä sekoitusta. Tämän jälkeen hiwellään rappausta kaksi kertaa saippua sekoituksella (5 osaa saippuata ja 100 osaa wettä), jolloin rappaus tulee weden läpilaskemattomaksi ja waatepalalla eli porstalla hangattuna saa se aiwan öljywärin kalttaisen kiillon.

Ulkomaalta. (Kangassanomalehti)

Tähti 19, 13.5.1864

Parisissa on herrat Willemessant ja Lecond antaneet wiimes huhtikuun 22 päiwänä ensimäisen numeron uutta sanomalehteä, joka ei ole painettu paperille niinkuin muut sanomat. Se on nimittäin painettu puumuli-waatteelle ja sellaisella painemustalla että koko paine saadaan pesemällä helposti pois, että, niin pian kuin tällainen sanomalehti on luettu, sen woi panna waatteeksi. Ne luetut sanomalehdet eiwät sillä tawoin mene hukkaan: ne saattaa umpeluttaa paidoiksi. Mikä armoton wiisas neuwo! Lukia woipi tästä arwata sanoma-kirjallisuuden tulewaisuuden. (S:tar.)

Wärjättyä kahwia.

Tapio 73, 19.9.1885

Turusta kertoo S. T. Olemme olleet tilaisuudessa näkemään eräältä täkäläiseltä kauppiaalta ostettua kahwia, jota on lähetetty tarkastettawaksi kemiallis- ja siementarkastuslaitokseen tässä kaupungissa, syystä että se epäiltiin olewan wärjättyä. Kahwia mainitussa laitoksessa tarkastettaessa on huomattu että sitä on wärjätty "berlinisinillä" ja eräällä keltaisella wäriaineella, mahdollisesti "curcumaa", jonka wuoksi tarkastuslaitos todistaa, että tämä kahwi on ellei suoraan myrkyllistä, niin kuitenkin semmoista laatua, että ehdottomasti waroitetaan sitä käyttämästä.
Kysymyksessä olewalle kauppiaalle on annettu tieto tästä todistuksesta, jota siis pitäisi estäwän häntä wast'edes myymästa tätä kahwilajia. Syystä että tämmöistä
kahwia kentiesi löytyy muillakin myytäwänä, niin kehoitamme ostajia, jos he epäilewät
että kahwi on wärjätty, ennen käyttämistä pesemään sitä puhtaaksi taikka antamaan sitä kemiallisesti tarkastaa.

Erityisiä ilmoituksia. Punamultaa...

Suomen Julkisia Sanomia 34, 30.4.1857

Punamultaa
walmistetaan Walkealan howissa Walkealan pitäjässä Wiipurin lääniä. Tämä multa on kaunista ja sopiwata niin puuhuoneitten wesimaalaamiseksi, kuin myös öljymaalaukseksi puuhun ja metalliin, jota monta rakennusta paikalla ja myös julkiset ja yksityiset rakennukset niin maaseuduilla kuin kaupungeissakin osottawat, ja on ymmärtäwäisiltä todistettu ruotsin punamultaa mukaisemmaksi puuta märkänemisestä säilyttämään. Tätä tawarata myydään paikalla 7 ja 10 leiwiskää painawissa tynnyreissä. Näytteeksi sitä löytyy Kotimaisen Teollisuuden varastossa (Depôt för Inhemska Industrialster) Helsingissä, Tammisaarella konsuli Hultmanin, Porkoossa konsuli Orrmanin, Lowiisassa konsuli Sucksdorffin, Haminassa kauppiaan Ahlqvistin, Wiipurissa kauppiaan Alfthanin, Lappeenrannalla kauppaneuwoksen Savanderin, Mikkelissä kauppiaan Kiurun, Sawonlinnassa kauppiaan Hypeläisen, Kuopiossa kauppiaan Pauloffin, Heinolassa kauppiaan Wahlmanin, Hämeenlinnassa kauppiaan Lönnholtzin, Tampereella kauppiaan Hildenin ja Jywäskylässä kauppiaan Forsblomin tykönä. Paikalta kuletetaan sitä huokealla maksulla haluawille.

Tampereen Werkatehdas-Osakeyhtiön hiljakkoin perustama Kauno-värjäys (mainos)


Tampereen Sanomat 37, 8.5.1880

Tampereen Werkatehdas-Osakeyhtiön hiljakkoin perustama Kauno-värjäys ja Kemiallinen pesulaitos
vastaanottaa tehtaan puodissa kauno värjättäväksi, pestäväksi, puhdistettavaksi, prässättäväksi ja likapilkkuja poisotettavaksi.
Nais- ja Miesväen vaatteita, Gardinia ja huonekalujen päälliskankaita, Vilttiä, Pöytäliinoja, Mattoja, Saarlia, Pää- ja Kaulaliinoja, Nauhoja y.m. Silkkisiä, puolisilkkisiä, Villasia ja puolivillasia, jotka takaisin jätetään täydellisessä tilassa huokeata maksoa vastaan. Jos joku vaate tarvitsee ratkoa, tulee siitä vastaanotettaissa ilmoittaa.

H. Saastamoinen Kuopiossa (mainos)



Savo 26, 29.4.1884

H. Saastamoinen Kuopiossa
myöpi suurissa ja wähissä määrin:
Zinkkiwalkiaa,
Lyijywalkiaa,
Lumiwalkiaa,
Lithoponea,
Liitua,
Keltamultaa,
Punamultaa,
Ruuniokraa,
Hiilimustaa,
Luumustaa,
Kimröökiä,
Lyijyhartsia,
Kasseiruunia,
Terra,
Umbra,
Kromikeltaa,
Sinoperi wiheriää,
Waunuwiheriää,
Zinkkiwiheriää,
Permanent wiher.,
Victoria ",
Berliner punasta,
Italian ",
Caput mort. (Todinkopf),
Mönjaa,
Rautamönjaa,
Lysokeria,
Boraksia,
Tulikiweä,
Berlinersinistä,
Kaboltsinistä,
Pariisin mustaa,
Mahogniruunia,
Terra japonica,
Parisin sinistä,
Mustaa stoftia,
Peso-sinistä,
Schmaltzia,
Ultramariinia,
Violett-lakkaa,
Terra Sienna,
Crom punasta,
Kelta Filling,
Harmaa Filling,
Siuatif pulweria,
Walkeaa Alunaa,
Wiheriää Alunaa,
Rauta-wihtrilliä,
Sandeli-wäriä,
Pimpsikiweä,
Kupariwihtrilliä,
Krappia,
Orleana,
Weriliwesuolaa,
Kanpheria,
Chrystalli Tattaria,
Harmaa Cochinellia,
Mustaa samoin,
Galläppeliä,
Curcuma,
Aneliniwäriä,
Walkiaa wiinakiwiä,
Punasta sam.,
Chromsyraa,
Lahoruunia, (Bresilja)
Hartsia,
Arabic-gummia,
Liimaa,
Borsyl. Mangan Oryd,
Gelatin,
Santapaperia,
Teräskampoja,
Punasta liitua,
Kultapronssia,
Metallikultaa,
Ehto-kultaa,
Ehto-hopeaa,
Lehtikultaa ja hopeaa,
Metalli-hopeaa,
Metallia,
Mustaa liitua,
Tusch'ia,
Wärilootia,
Kaikenlaisia maalarin penseleitä sekä harjoja,
Liinaöljyä keitettyä ja keittämätöintä,
Punasta, ruunia, sinistä, mustaa, harmaata, wiheriää ja walkiaa walmista maalia, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 ja 60 #[leiviskä] metalliastioissa,
Wesilasia,
Posliinilakkaa,
Crystallilakkaa,
Damarlakkaa,
Kupalilakkaa,
Lattialakkaa,
Xerotinia,
Ruusalakkaa,
Florentinlakkaa,
Asfaltlakkaa,
Waununwoidetta,
Lakkafernissaa, walkeaa, punasta ja keltasta, ¼ ½ ja 1 #[leiviskä] pullossa,
Polityra ¼ ½ ja 1 #[leiviskä] pullossa,
Pale Chrystall fernissa,
Pale Waering Body,
Kultafernissaa,
Saft-fernissaa,
Japansk gold size,
Saft punasta,
Kartta-fernissaa,
Fuchsin,
Dalia,
Cerice,
Mahognibets,
Walnötsbets,
Stand Olja,
Stempel-wäriä,
Woi-wäriä,
Sulattua liimaa.
H. Saastamoinen.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Madder. Chap. 444.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,

Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597


Of Madder. Chap. 444.



The kindes.
There is but one kinde of Madder onely: but if all those that are like unto it in leaues and maner of growing were referred thereto, there should be many sorts: as Goose grasse, soft Cliuer, our Ladies Bedstraw, Woodroose, and Crossewoort, all which are like to Madder in leaues, and therefore they be thought to be wilde kinds thereof.

The description
The garden or manured madder, hath long stalkes or trailing branches dispersed farre abroade uppon the grounde, square, rough, and ful of ioints, at euery ioint ser rounde with greene rough leaues, in maner of a starre, or as those of Woodroofe: the flowers growe at the top of the branches; of a faint yellowe colour: after which come the seede, rounde, greene at the forst; afterwarde red, and lastly of a blacke colour: the roote long, fat, full of substance, creepeth farre abroade withinthe upper crust of the earth, and is of a reddish colour, when it is greene and fresh.

Wilde madder is like informe unto that of the garden, but altogither smaller, and not so rough: the flowers are white: the roots is verie finall and tender, and oftentimes of a reddish colour.

Sea Madder hath a roote two foote long, with many dry threds hanging thereat, of a reddish colour like Alkanet, on the outside of the same forme and bignes, but within it of the colour of the scrapings of Iuniper, or Cedar wood, sending foorth diuers slender stalkes rounde and full of ioints: from which come foorth small thin leaues, stiffe and sharpe pointed, somewhat hairy, in number commonly sower, standing like a Burgonion crosse; from the bosome of which come foorth certaine tufts of smaller leaues thrust togither upon a heape: the flowers grow at the top of the stalkes of a pale yellowish colour.

The place
Madder is planted in gardens, and is very common in most places of England.
The seconde groweth in moist meadowes, in moorish grounds, and under bushes almost euerie where.
The last groweth by the sea side on most places.

The time.
They flourish from Maie unto the end of August: the rootes are gathered and dried in Autumn, and solde tothe use of Diers, and Medicine.

The names.
Madder is called in Greeke ----,Erythoradanum: in Latine Rubia, and Rubeis: in shops Rubia tinctorum: Paulus AEgineta sheweth that it is named Thapson which the Diers use, and the Romaines call it Herba Rubia: in Italian Rubbia, and Robbia: in Spanish Ruuia, Roya, and Garanza: in French Garance: in high Dutch Rotte: in lower Dutch B[?]ee, and B[?]ee crappen: in English Madder, and red Madder.

The temperature.
Of the temperature of Madder, it hath beene disputed among the learned, and as yet not censured, whether it do binde or open; some say both, diuers diuersly deeme: a great Phisition (I do not say the great learned) called me to account as touching the faculties heereof, although he had no commission so to do, notwithstanding I was content to be examined upon the point, what the nature of Madder was, bicause I haue written that it performeth contrary effects, as shall be shewed: the rootes of Madder, which both Phisitions and Diers do use, as they have an obscure binding power and force; so they likewise of nature and temperature colde and drie: they are withall of diuers thin parts, by reason whereof their colour doth easily pearce: yet haue they at the first a certaine little sweetenes, with an harsh binding qualitie presently following it; which not onely we out selues haue obserued, but also Anicen the prince of Pisitions, (the great Phisitions master) who in his 58. Chapter hath written, that the roote of Madder hath a rough and harsh taste: nowe Master Doctor, whether it binde or open I haue answered, attending your censure: but if I haue erred, it is with the multitude, and those of the best, and best learned.

The vertues.
The decoction of the rootes of Madder is euery where commended for those that are busten, brused, wounded, and that haue fallen from high places.

It stranchech bleeding, mitigateth inflammations, and helpeth those parts that be hurt and brused.

For these causes they be mixed with potions, which the later Phisitions call wound drinkes in which there is such force and vertue, as Mathiolus also reporteth, that there is likewise great hope of curing of deadly wounds in the chest and intrails.

Our opinion and iudgement is confirmed by that most expert man, somtimes Phisition of London Johannes Springus, who in his Rapsodes hath noted, that the decoction fo Madder giuen with Triphera, that great composition is singular good to stay the reds, the hemorrhoides and boudie flixe, and the same approoued by diuers experiments: which confirmeth Madder to be of an astringgent and binding qualitie.

Of the same opinion as it seemeth is also Eros Iulia hir freed man (commonly called Trotula) who in composition agains untimely birth doth use the same: for if he had thought that Madder were of such a qualitie as Dioscorides writeth it to be of, he woulde not in any wife haue added to those medicines which are good against an untimely birth.

For Dioscorides reporteth, that the roote of Madder doth plentifuly prouke urine, and that grosse and thicke, and oftentimes bloud also, and it is so great an opener, that being but onely applied, it bringeth downe the menses, the birth, and afterbirth: but the extreme rednes of the urine deceiued him, that immediately followeth the taking of Madder, which rednes came as he thought, from bloud mixed therewith, which notwithstanding commeth no otherwise then from the colour of the Madder.

For the roote hereof taken any maner of way dot by & by make the urine extreme red: no otherwise then Rubarb doth make the same yellow, not changing in the mean time the substance therof, nor making it thicker then it was before, which is to be understoode in those which are in perfect health, which thing doth rather shew that it doth not open, but binde, no other wise then Rubarbe doth; for by reason of his binding qualitie the waterish humours do for a while keepe their colour. For colours mixed with binding things do longer remain in the things colored, and do not so soon vade: this thing they well knowe that gather colours out of the iuices of flowers and herbes, for with them they mixe allume, to the end that the colour may be retained and kept the longer, which otherwise woulde be quickly lost. By these things it manifestlty appeereth that Madder doth nothing vehemently either clense or open, and that Dioscorides hath rashly attributed unto it this kinde of qualitie, and after him Galen and the rest that followed, standing stiffely to his opinion.

Plinie saith, that the stalkes with the leaues of Madder, are used against serpents.

The roote of Madder boiled in Meade or honied water, and drunken, openeth the stoppings of the liuer, the milt and kidneies, and is good against the iaundise.

The same taken in like maner prouoketh urine vehemently, insomuch that the often use thereof causeth one to pisse bloud, as some haue dreamed.

Langius and other excellent Phisitions haue experimented the same to amende the lothsome colour of the Kings euill, and helpeth the ulcers of the mouth; if unto the decoction be added a little allume and honie of Roses.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Alkanet or wilde Buglosse. (Chap. 271.)

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
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Of Alkanet or wilde Buglosse. (Chap. 271.)

The kindes.
There ne sundrie plants diuersly called, and yet euerie of them comprehended or conteined among the kindes of wilde Buglosses, whose figures to setsoorth particularly would both require cost and also much labour, and yet to small purpose; so that it shal suffice to set foorth the pictures of some and the bare descriptions of the rest: where of there be according to Dioscorides three kindes (besides the commong Buglosse and Landebeuf) that is to say, Onoclia, Alcibiadion, and the third without a name which we make to be Onosma. And first of
1. Anchusa Alcibiadion, Red Alkanet
2. Anchusa lutea, Yellow Alkanet



The description
These herbes comprehended under the name of Anchusa were so called of the Greeke word ---- i. illinere succo, vel pigmentis, that is to colour or paint any thing whereupon these plants were called Anchusa of that flourishing and bright red colour which is in the roote, euen as red as pure and cleere blood: for that is the onely note or marke whereby to distinguish these herbes from those which e called Echy, Lycopsis, and Buglossa, whereof they make a great resemblance: I haue therefore expressed sower differences of this plant Anchusa or Alkanet from the other kinds, by the leaues, flowers, and bignesse.

1. The first kinde of Alkanet hath many leaues like Echium, or small Buglosse, couered ouer with a prickly hoarines, hauing commonly but one stalk, which is round, rough, & a cubite high. The cups of the flowers are of a skie colour tending to purple, not unlike the flowers of Echium; the seede is small, somewhat long, and of a pale colour: the roote is a finger thicke, the pith or inner part therof is woodie substance, dying the hands or whatfoeuer thoucheth thesame, of a bloodie colour, or of the colour of saunders.

2. The second kinde of Anchisa or Alkanet, is of greater beutie and estimation than the first; the branches are lesle and more bushie in the top: it hath also greater plentie of leaues, and those more woolly or hairie: the stalke groweth to the height of two cubits: at the top growe flowers of a yellowe colour, farre different from the other: the roote is more shining, of an excellent delicate purplish colour, and more full of iuice then the first.

There is a small kinde of Alkanet, whose roote is greater and more full of iuice and substaunce then the rootes of the other kinds; in all other respects it is lesse, from the leaues are narrower, smaller, tenderer, and in number more, very greene like unto Borage, yeelding foorth many little tender stalks: the flowers are lesse then of the small Buglosse, and red of colour: the seede is of an ashe colour somewhat long and slender, hauing the taste of Buglosse.

There is also another kinde of Alkanet, which is as the others before mentioned, a kind of wilde Buglosse, notwithstanding for distionction sake, I haue separated and seuered them. This last Anchusa hath narrowe leaues, much like unto our common sommer Sauorie. The stalkes are two handfuls high, bearing very small flowers, and of a blewish or skie colour: the roote is of a darke brownish red colour, fying the hands little or nothing at all, and of a woodie substance.

The place
These plants do grow in the fieldes of Narbone, and about Montpelier, and many other parts of Fraunce: I found these plants growing in the Ile of Thanet neere unti the sea, bewixt the house sometime belonging to sir Henric Crispe, and Margate: where I founde some in their naturall ripenes, yet scarcely any that were come to that beautiful colour of Alkanet: but such as is solde for very good in out Apothecaries shops, I found there in great plentie.

The time.
The Alkanets flower and flourish in the sommer moneths: the rootes do yeelde their bloody iuice in haruest time, as Dioscorides writeth.

The names.
Alkanet is called in Greeke ---- in Latine also Anchusa, of diuers Fucus herba, and Onocleia, Buglossa Hispanica, or Spanish Buglosse: in Spanish Soagem: in French Orchanett: and in English likewise Orchanet, and Alkanet.

The temperature.
The rootes of Alkanet are cold and drie as Galen writeth, and binding, and bicause it is bitter it clenseth awaie cholericke humours, and leaues be not so forceable, yet do they likewise binde and drie.

The vertues.
Dioscorides saith, that the roote being made up into a cerote, or serecloth with oile, is very good for old uleers; that with parched barley meale it is good for the leprie, & for tetters or ring wormes.
That being used as a pessarie it bringeth foorth the dead birth.
The decoction being inwardly taken with meade or honied water, cureth the yellowe iaundise, diseases of the kidneies, the spleene and agues.
It is used in ointments for womens paintings: and the leaues drunke in wine is good against the laske.
Diuers of the later Phisitions do boile with the roote of Alkanet and wine, sweete butter, such as hath in it no salt at all, untill such time as it becommeth red, which they call red butter / give it not onely to those that haue fallen from some high place, but also report it to bee good to driue foorth the measels and small poxe, if it be drunke in the beginning with hot beere.
The rootes of these plants are used to colour sirups, waters, gellies, and such like confections, as Turnsoleis.
John of Arderne hath set downe, a composition called Sanguis veneris, which is most singular in deepe punctures or wounds made with thrufts, as followeth: Take of oile Oliue a pint, the rootes of Alkanet two ounces, earth woormes purged, in number of twentie, boile them togither and keepe it to the use aforesaid.
The gentlewomen of Fraunce fo paint their faces with these rootes, as it is said.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Gum Lack and his rotten tree. Chap. 142.

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Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597


Of Gum Lack and his rotten tree. Chap. 142.

Lacca cum suis bacillis.
Gum Lack with his staffe, or sticke.


The description
The tree that bringeth foorth that excrementall substance, lacced lacca both in the shops of Europe and elsewhere, is called of the Arabians, Persians and Turkes Lac Sumutri, as who should say Laccaof Sumutra: some which haue to termed it, haue thought that the first plentie thereof came from Sumutra, but herein they haue erred; for the abundant store thereof came from Pegu, where the inhabitants thereof do call it Lac, and others of the same prouince tree. The historie of which tree, according to that famous Herbarist Clusius is as followeth: There is in the country of Pegu and Malabar, a great tree, whose leaues are like them of the Plum tree, hauing many small twiggie branches; when the trunke or body of the tree waxeth olde, it rotteth in sundrie places, wherein do breede certaine great ants of Pismires, which continually worke and labour in the time of haruest and somer against the penuerie of winter: such is the diligence of these Ants, or such is lumpe or masse of substance, which is of a crimson colour, so beautifull and so faire, as in the whole world the like cannot be seene, which ferueth not onely to phisicall uses, but is a perfect and costly colour for Painters, called by us Indian Lack. The Pismires (as I said) worke out this colour, by sucking the substance of matter of Lacca from the tree, as Bees do make honie and waxe, by sucking the matter thereof from all herbes, trees, and flowers, and the inhabitants of that countrie, do as diligently search for this Lacca, as we in England and other countries, seeke in the woods for honie; which Lacca after they haue found, they take from the tree, and drie it into a lumpe; among which someimes there come ouer some sticks and peeces of the tree with the wings of the Ants, which have fallen amongst it, as we daily see.

The place
The tree which beareth Lacca groweth in Zeilan and Malauar, and in other partes of the East Indies.

The time.
Of the time we haue no certaine knowledge.

The names.
Indian Lack is called in shops Lacca: Italian Lachetta: Anicem calleth it Luch: Paulus and Dioscorides Cancamum: the other names are expressed in the description.

The temperature and vertues.
Lack or Lacca is hot in the second degree, it comforteth the hart and liuer, openeth obstructions, expelleth urine, and preuaileth against the dropsie.

There is an artificiall lack made of the scrapings of Brasil and Saffron, which is used of painters, and not to be used in physicke as the other naturall Lacca.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Diers weede. Chap. 129.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
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Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597




Of Diers weede. Chap. 129.

Luteola.
Diers weed, or yellow weede.


The description
Diers weede hath long, narrow, and blackish leaues, not much unlike to Woade, but a great deale smaller and narrower; from among which commeth up a stalk two cubits high, beset with little narrow leaues: amog which leaues euen to the toppe of the stalke come foorth small pale yellow flowers, closely clustering togither one aboue another, which do turne into small buttons, cut as it were crossewife, whereing the seede is conteined. The roote is very long and single.

The place
Diers weede groweth of it selfe in moist, barren, and untilled places, in and about villages almost euere where.

The names.
Pliny in his 33. booke cap. 5. maketh mention by the waie of this herb, and calleth it Lutea: Vitrunius in his 7. booke Lutum: likewise Virgil in his Bucolickes, the fourth Egloge: in English Welde and Diers weede.

The time.
This herbe flourisheth in Iune and Iuly.

The nature.
It is hot and drie of temperature.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Woade. Chap. 126.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
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Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597


Of Woade. Chap. 126.


Glastum Sativum.
Garden Woade.

The description
Glastum or Garden Woade hath long leaues of a bleweish greene colour. The stalk groweth two cubites high, set about with a great number of such leaues as come up first, but smaller, branching it selfe at the top into many little twigs, whereupon doe growe many small yellow flowers, which being past, the seede commeth foort like little blackish toongs: the roote is white and single.

There is a wilde kinde of Woade very like unto the former in stalkes, leaues, and fashion, sauing that the stalke is tenderer, smaller, and browner, and the little toongs narrower; otherwise there is no difference betwixt them.

The place
The tame or garden Woade groweth in fertill fields, where it is sowen: the wilde kinde groweth where the tame kinde hath been sowen.

The time.
They flower from Iune to September.

The names.
Woade is called in Greeke ----: in Latine Isatis, and Glastum. Cæsar in his first booke of the French wars, saith, that all the Britons do colour themseues with Woad, which giueth a blew colour: the which thing also Plinie in his 22. booke, chap.1. doth testifie: In fraunce they call it Glastum, Woad, which is like unto Plantaine, wherewith the Britons wiues, and theis sonnes wiues are coloured all ouer, and go naked in some kinde of sacrifices. It is likewise called of diuers Guadum: of the Italians Guado; a word as it seemeth, wrung out of the word Glastum: in Spanish and French Pastel: in Dutch Weer: in English Woade and Wade.

The nature.
Garden Woade is drie without sharpnesse: the wilde Woade drieth more, and is more sharpe and biting.

The vertues.
The decoction of Woade deunken, is good for such as haue any stopping or hardnes in the milt or spleene, and is also good for wounds and ulcers in bodies of a strong constitution, as of countrie people, and such as are accustomed to great labour, and hard course fare.

It serueth well to die and colour cloth, profitable to some few, and hurtfull to many.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of red Sumach. Chap. 106.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
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Of Red Sumach. Chap. 106.



The description
These two figures are one and the selsesame plant, the first sheweth the shrub being in flower: the other when it is full flowred with the fruit growen to ripenesse, notwithstanding some haue deemed them to be of two kindes, wherein they were deceiued.

This excellent and most beautifull plant Coggygria (being reputed of Italians and the venetias for a kinde of Rhus or Sumach, bicause it is used for the same purposes whereto Rhus serueth and therein doth far excell it) is an hedge plant growing not aboue the height of sower or fiue cubits, hauing though and pliant stalks and twiggie branches like unto Oziers, of a browne colour. The leaues be round, thicke and stiffe like the leaues of Clapparis, in colour and fauor of Pistacia leaues, or --- among other which --- a small upright sprig; bearing at the toppe a most fine woollie or flockie tuft, crisped and curled like a curious wrought silken fleece, which curleth and foldeth it selfe abroad like a large bush of haires, copact of crimson coloured haire; among it which commeth foorth --- seede, which like unto Lacs[?], but smaller, and of a darker red clour.

The place
Coggyria groweth in Orleans neere Auinion, and in diuers places of Italie, upon the Alpes of Histria, and many other places. It groweth on most of the hils of France, in the high woods of the upper Pannonia or Austria, and also of Hungaria and Bohemia.

The time.
They flower and flourish for the most part in Iuly.

The names.
The first is called Coggygria and Coccygria: in English Venice Sumach, or Silken Sumach; of Plinie Cotinus in his sixteenth booke eighteenth chapter. There is (saith he) on mount Apenine a shrub, which is called Cotinus ad lineament modo Conchyly colore in signis, and yet ---- is Oleaster, or Olea sylvestris, the wilde Oliue tree, from which this shrub doth much differ; and therefore it may rightly be called Cotinus Coriaria: diuers would haue it named Scotinus, which name is not found in any of the old writers. The Pannonians do call it Farblauff. It is also thought that this shrub is Coccuria Plinÿ, of which in his 13. booke 22. chapter he writeth in these words, Coggygria is also like to Unedo[?] in leafe, not so great; it hath a propertie to lose the fruit by the downe, which thing happeneth to no other tree.

The temperature.
The leaues and slender branches togither with the seedes, are very much binding, cold and drie as the other kindes of Sumach are.

The vertues.
The leaues of Coggygria, or silken Sumach, are sold in the markets of Spaine and Italie for great summes of money, unto those that dresse Spanish skins, for which purpose they are very excellent.

The roote of Cotinus, as Anguillara noteth, serueth to die with, giuing to wooll and cloth a reddish colour, which Plinie knew, shweing that shrub (that is to say, the roote) is ad lineamenta modo Conchylij colore in signis.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Coriars Sumach. Chap. 105.

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Of Coriars Sumach. Chap. 105.

Rhus Coriaria. Coriars Sumach.
Rhus Myrtifolius Wilde, or Myrtill Sumach.


The description
Coriars Sumach groweth up into the height of a hedge tree, after the maner of the Elder tree; bigger then Dioscorides reporteth it to be, or other, who affirme that Rhus groweth two cubits high; whose errors are the greaten: but this Rhus is so like unto the Seruice tree in shape and maner of growing, that it is hard to know one from the other; but that the leaues are soft and hairie, hauing a red sinewe or rib thorow the midst of the leafe: the flowers growe with the leaues upon long stems clustering togither like cats taile, or the catkins of the nut tree, but greater, and of a whitish greene colour: after which come clusters of roundberries, growing in bun, ches like grapes.

Plinie his Sumach, or the Sumach of Plinies description, groweth like a small hedge tree, hauing many slender twiggie branches, garnished with little leaues like Myrtus, or rather like the leaues of the Iuiube tree; aong which come foorth slender mossie flowers, of no great account or value, which bring forth smal seeds, inclosed within a cornered cafe or huske, fashioned like a spoone: the trunke or body of both these kinds of Sumach being wounded with some iron instrument, yeeldeth a gum or liquor.

The place
Sumach groweth as Dioscorides saith, in stony places: it is found in diuers mountaines and woods in Spaine, and in many places on the mount Apennine in Italy, and also neere unto Pontus. Archigenes in Galen in the 8. booke of medicines according to the places affected, sheweth that it groweth in Syria, making choise of that of Syria.

The time.
The flowers of Sumach come foorth in Iuly, the seed with the berries are ripe in Autumne.

The names.
This is called in greeke ---; Rhus saith Plinie hath no Latine name; yet Gaza after the signification of the Greeke worde, saineth a nae, calling it Fluida: the Arabians name it Sumach: the Italians Somacho: the Spaniards Sumagre: in low Dutch by contracting of the word they cal it Smack or Sumach: in English Sumach, Coriars Sumach, and leather Sumach: the leaues of the shrub be called ---- : in Latine Rhus coriaria, or Rhoë.

The seede is named ---- and -----: in Latine Rhoë culinaria,and Rhoë obsoniorum: in English Meate Sumach, and Sauce Sumach.

The temperature.
The fruit, leaues, and seede hereof do vey much binde, they also coole and drie: drie they are in the third degree, and cold in the second, as galecn teacheth.

The vertues.
The leaues of Sumach boyled in winde and drunken, do stop the laske, the inordinance course of womens sicknesses, and all other inordinate issues of blood.
The seede of Sumach eaten in sauces with meate, stoppeth all manner of fluxes of the belly, the bloodie flixe, and all other issues, especially the white issues of women.
The decoction of the leaues maketh haires blacke, and is put into stooles to fume upward into the bodies of those that haue the dysenterie, and is to be giuen them also in drinke.
The leaues made into an oyntment of plaister with honie and vineger, staieth the spreading nature of Gangrana and Pterygium.
The drie leaues sodden in water untill the decoction be as thicke as honie, yeeldeth foorth a certaine oylinesse, which performeth all the effects of Licium.
The seede is no lesse effectuall to be strowed in powder upon their meates which are Caeliasi or Dysenterici.
The seeds pouned, mixed with honie and the powder of Oken coles, healeth the Hemorrhoides.
There issueth out of the shrub a gum, which being put intoe the hollownesse of the teeth, taketh away the paine, as Diocorides writeth.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Turbith of Antioch. Chap. 89.

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Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597



Of Turbith of Antioch. Chap. 89.



The description
Garcia a Lusitanian or Portingale phisition saith that Turbith is a plant hauing a roote which is neither great nor long: the stalk is of a span long, somtimes longer, a finger thicke, which creepeth in the grounde like Iuie, and bringeth foorth leaues like those of the marish Mallowe. The flowers be also like those of the Mallowe, of a reddish white colour: the outward rinde of whose rootes is that which is profitable in medicine, and is the same that is used in shops: they choose that for the best which is hollowe, & round like a reede, brittle, and with a smooth barke, as also that whereunto doth cleaue a congealed gum, which is saide to be gummosum, or gummie, and somewhat white. But, as Garcias saith, it is not alwaies gummie of his own nature; but the Indians bicause they see that out marchants note the best Turbith by the gumminessa, are woont before they gather the same, either to writhe or else lightly to bruse them, that the sappe or liquor may issue out; which rote being once hardned, they picke out from the rest to fell at a greater price. It is likewise made white, as the saide author sheweth, being dried in the sunne: for if it be dried in the shadowe, it waxeth blacke.

The place
It groweth by the sea side, but yet no so neere that it may receiue the vaports that rise from the sea, but two or three miles distant, and that in untilled grounds rather moist then drie. It is founde in Cambaya, Surrates, in the Ile Dion, Bazaim, and in places hard adioining; also in Guzarates, where it groweth plentifully, from whence great abundance of its brought into Persia, Arabia, little Asia, and so into Europe: but that is preferred which groweth in Cambaya.

The names.
It is called of the Arabians, Persians, and Turks Turbith; and in Guzarata Barcaman: in the prouince Canara, in which is the citie Goa, Tiguar: likewise in Europe the learned call it by sundrie names, according to their seuerall fancies, which hath bred sundrie controuersies as it hath fallen out betweene the Hermodactules, and Turbith; the use and possession of which, we cannot seeme to want: but which plant is the true Turbith, we haue great cause to dubt. Some haue thought our Tripolium marinum, described in the former chapter to be Turbith: others haue supposed it to bee one of the Tythimales, but which kinde they knowe not: Guillandinus saith, that the roote of Tythimalus mirsinitis is the true Turbith; which caused L'Obelisus and Pena to plucke up by the rootes all the kindes of Tythimales, and drie them vry curiouslie; which when they had behed, and throughly tried, they founde it nothing so. The Arabians and halfe Moores that dwell in the east parts, haue giuen diuers names unto this plant: and as their wordes are dieuers, so haue they diuers significations; but this time Turbith they seeme to interpret to be any milkie root which foth strongly pure flegme, as this plant doth. So that as men haue thought good pleasing, themseues, they haue made many & diuers constructions which haue troubled many excellent learned men, to knowe whose roote is the true Turbith. But briegly to set downe mine opinion, not varying from the iudgement of men which are of great experience; I thinke assuredly that the roote of SScammonie of Antioch is the true & undoubted Turbith: one reason especially that mooueth me so to thinke is, for that I haue taken up the rootes of Scammonie which grewe in my garden, and compared them with the rootes of Turbith, betweene which I founde little or no difference at all.

The temperature and vertues.
The Indian phisitions do use it to purge flegme, to which if there be no ague they do adde ginger, otherwise they giue it without it in the broth of a chicken, and sometimes in faire water.

Mesues writeth, that Turbith is hot in the thirde degree; and that it voideth thicke tough flegme out of the stomacke, chest, finewes, and out of the furthermost parts of the bodie: but (as he saith) it is flowe in working, and troubleth and ouerturneth the stomacke: and thefore ginger, masticke, and other spices are to be mixed with it; also oile of sweete almondes, or almondes themselues, or sugar, least the bodie with the use heereof shoulde pine and fall away. Others temper it with dates, sweete almonds, and certaine other things, making thereof a composition (that the apothecaries call an Electuarie) which is named --- common in shops, and in continuall use among expert phisitions.

There is giuen at one time of this Turbith one dram (more or lesse) two at the most: but in the decoction, or in the infusion three or sower.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Whortes, or Whortle berries. Chap 69.

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Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597


Of Whortes, or Whortle berries. Chap 69.

The kindes.
Vaccinia or Whortes, of which we intreat in this place, differ from violets; neither are they flowers, but berries: of these Whortes there be three sorts found out by the auncients, reckoning the marrish Whortle for one: the later writers haue found more.



The description

1 Vaccinia nigra, the blacke Whortle, or Hurtle, is a base and lowe tree, or woodie plant, ringing foorth many branches of a cubite high, set full of small leaues, of a darke greene colour, not much unlike the leaues of Boxe, or the Myrtill tree: among which come foorth little hollow flowers, turning into small berries, greene at the first, afterwarde red, and at the last of a blacke colour, and full of a pleasant and sweere iuice; in which do lie diuers little thinne whitish seeds; these berries do colour the mouth and lips of those that eate them, with a blacke colour: the roote is woodie, slender, and now and then creeping.

2 Vaccinia rubra or the red Whortle, is like the former in the maner of growing, but that the leaues are greater and harder, almost like the leaues of the Boxe tree, abiding greene all the winter long: among which come foorth small carnation flowers, long and round, growing in clusters at the top of the branches, after which succeede small berries in shewe and bignesse like the former, but that they are of an excellent red colour, and full of iuice, of so orient and beautifull a purple to limme withall, that Indian Lacca is not to be compared thereunto; especially when this iuice is prepared and dressed with allom according to Art, as my selfe haue prooued by experience; the taste is tough and astringent: and the roote is of a woody substance.

3 Vaccinia alba or the white Whortle, is like unto the former, both in stalkes and leaues, but the berries are of a white colour, wherein consisteth the difference.

4 Carolus Clusius in his Pannonicke obseruations hath set down another of the Whortle berries, under the name of Vitis Idæa, which differeth not from the other Whortle berries, not onely in stature but in leaues and fruite also.

5 The same author also setteth foorth another of the Whortle berries, under the title of Vua Vrsi [Uva Ursi], which is likewise a shrubbie plant, hauing manie feeble branches; whereon do growe long leaues blunt at hte points & of an ouer worne greene colour: among which come foorth clussers of bottlelike flowers, of an herby colour: the fruith followeth, growing likewise in clusters, greene at the first, & blacke when they are ripe: the roote is of a woodie substance.


The place
These plants prosper best in a leane barren soile, & in untoiled woody places: they are now & then found on high grounds, subject to the winde, and upon mountaines: they growe plentifully in both the Germanies, Bohemia, and in diuers places of France and Englande, namely in Middlesex on Hampsteed Heath, & the woods therto adioining, and also upon the hils in Cheshire called Broxen hils, neere unto Beeston castle, 7. miles from the Nantwich; and in the wood by Highgate called Finchly woode, and in diuers other places.

The red Whortle berry groweth in Westmerlad, at a place called Crossby Rauenswaith; where also doth growe the Wohortle with the white berrie, and in Lancashire also upon Pendle hils.

The time.
The Whortle berries do flower in Maie, and their fruite is ripe in Iune.

The names.

Whortle berries are called in high Dutch Heydelbeeren: in lowe Dutch Crakebesien, bicause they make a certaine cracke whilest they be broken betweene the teeth, of diuers, Hauerbesien: the French men Airelle, or Aurelie, as Iohannes de Chout writeth: and we in England Whortes, Whortle berries, Blacke Berries, Bill Berries, and Bull Berries, and in some places Winberries.

Most of the shops of Germanie do call them Myrtilli, but properly Myrtilli are the fruite of the Myrtle tree, as the Apothecaries names them at this day. This plant hath no name for ought we can learne, either among the greekes or auncient Latines: for whereas most do take it to be Vitis Idæa, or the Corinth tree, which Plinie surnameth Alexandrina, it is untrue; for Vitis Idæa is not onelie like to the common Vine, but is also a kinde of Vine: and Theophrastus who hath made mention heereof doth call it without an epethere, ----------, simply, as a little after we will declare: which without doubt he woulde not haue done, if he had founde it to differ from the common Vine. For what things foener receiued a name of some plant, the same are exprest by some epethite added, that they might be knowne to differ from others, as Laurus Alexandrina, Vitis alba, Vitis nigra, Vitis sylvestris, and such like.

Moreouer, those things which haue borowed a name from some plant, are like thereunto, if not wholy, yet either in leafe or fruite, or in some other thing. Vitis alba, and nigra, that is to saie, the white and the blacke Bryonies, haue leaues and clasping tendrels, as hath the common Vine; they also climbe after the same maner: Vitis Syluestris, or the wilde Vine, hath such like stalkes as the Vine hath, and bringeth foorth fruite like to the little grapes: Laurus Alexandrina, and Chamedaphne, and also Daphnoides, are like in leaues to the Laurell tree: Sycomorus is like in fruite to the Figge tree, and in leaues to the Mulberie tree: Chamædrys hath the leafe of an Oke; Peucedanus of the Pine ree: so of others which haue taken their name from some other. But this lowe shrub is not like the Vine, either in any part, or in any other thing.

This Vitis Idæa, groweth not on the uppermost and snowie parts of moun Ida as some would haue it) but about Ida, euen the hill Ida, not of candy, but of Troas in the lesser Asia, which Ptolemie in his fift booke of Geographie 3. chapter doth call Alexandri Troas, or Alexander his Troy: whereupon it is also aduisedly named of Plinie in his 14 booke 3. chapter Vitis Alexandrina, no otherwise then Alexandrina Laurus is saide of Theophrastus to grow there: Laurus, surnamed Alexandrina, and Ficus quadam, or a certaine Figge tree, and --- , that is to say, the Vine, are reported, saith he, to grow properly about Ida. Like unto this Vine are those which Philostratus in the life of Apollonius reporteth to growe in Mæonia, and Lydia, scituated not farre from Troy, comparing them to those Vines which grow in India beyond Caucasus: the Vines, saith he, be very like, as be those that growe there in Mæonia and Lydia, yet is the wine which is pressed out of them, of amaruellous pleasant taste.

This Vine which groweth neere to mount Ida, is reported to be like a shrub, with little twigs and branches of the lenght of a cubite, about which are grapes growing aslope, blacke, or the bignes of a Beane, sweete, hauing within a certaine winie substance, soft: the leafe of this is rounde, uncut, and little.

This is described by Plinie in his 14. booke 3. chapter, almost in the selfe same workds: It is called saith he, Alexanrina vitis and groweth neere unto Phalacra: it is short, with brances a cubite long, with a blacke grape, of the bignes of the Latines Beane, with a shoft pulpe and very little, with very sweete clusters growing aslope, and a little round leafe without cuts.

And with this description the little shrub which the Apothecaries of Germanie do call Myrtillum, doth nothing at al agree, as it is very manifest; for it is low, scarce a cubite high, with a few short branches, not growing to a cubite in lenght: it doth not bring foort clusters or bunches, nor yet fruite like unto grapes, but berries like those of the Yew tree; not sweete, but somewhat sower and astringent, in which also there are many little white flat seedes: the leafe is not round, but more long then round, not like to that of the Vine, but of the Boxe tree. Moreouer it is thought that this is not found in Italy, Greece, or in the lesser Asia, for that Mathiolus affirmeth the same to grow no where but in Germanie and Bohemia, so farre is it from being called or accounted to be Vitis Idæa, or Alexandrina.

The fruit of this may be thought not without cause to be named Vaccinia, sith they are berries for they may be named of Bacca, berries, Vaccinia, as though they should be called Baccinia. Yet this letteth not but that there may also be other Vaccinia; for Vaccinia is --- dictio, or a worde of diuers significations. Virgil in the first of his Bucolikes the tenth Eclog affirmeth, that the wrten Hyacinth is named of the Latines Vaccinium, translating into Latine Theocritus his verse, which is taken out of hs 10. Eidyl.
Virgikl.
Et nigra viola, sunt & vaccinia nigra.


Vitruuius in the seuenth booke of his Architecture doth also distinguish Vaccinium from the Violet, and sheweth that of it is made a gallant purple, which seeing that the written Hyacinth cannot do, it must needes be that this Vaccinium is another thing than the Hyacinth is, bicause it serueth to giue a purple die.

Plinie also in his 16. booke 18. chapter hath made mention of Vaccinia, which are used to die bondflaues garments with, and to giue them a purple colour.

But whether these of our Vaccinia or Whortle berries, it is hard to affirme, especially seeing that Plinie reckoneth up Vaccinia among those plants which growe in waterie places; but ours growe on mountains, upon high places subject to windes, neither is it certainly knowen to growe in Italie. Howsoeuer it is, these out Whortles may be called Vaccinia, and do agree with Plinies and Vitruuius his Vaccinia, bicause garments and linnen cloth may take from these a purple die.

The Whortle berries haue their name from the blacke Whortles, to which they be in forme very like, and are called in Latine Vaccinia rubra: in high Dutch Rooter Heidelbeere: in lowe Dutch Roode Crakebesien: the French men Aurelles rouges: they be named in English Red Whortes, or red Whortle berries. Conradus Gesnerus hath called this plant Vitis Idæa rubris acinis: but the growing of the berries doth shew, that this doth far lesse agree with Vitis Idæa than the that thought it to be Vitis Idæa but from the tops of the springs in clusters.

As concerning the names of the other, they are touched in their seuerall descriptions.

The temperature.
These Vaccinia or Whortle berries, are colde cuen in the later end of the second degree, and drie also with a manifest astriction or binding qualitie.

Red Whortle berries are cold and drie, and also binding.

The vertues.

A The iuice of the blacke Whortle berries is boyled, till it become thicke, and is prepared or kept by adding honie and Sugar unto it: the Apothecaries call iit Rob, which is preferred in all things before the rawe berries themselues. For many times whilest these be eaten or taken rawe, they are offensiue to a weake and cold stomacke, and so far are they from binding the bely, or staying the laske, as that they also trouble the same through their cold and rawe qualitie, which thing the boyled iuice called Rob doth not any whit at all.

B They be good for an hot stomacke, they quench thirst, they mitigate and alay the heate of hot burning agues, they stop the belly, they stay vomiting, they cure the bloody flixe proceeding of choler, and they helpe the felonie, or the purging of choler upwards and downwards.

C The people in Cheshire do eate the blacke Whortles in creame and milk, as in these fourth parts we eate Strawberries, which stop and binde the belly, putting away also the desire to vomit.

D The red Whortle is not of such a pleasant taste as the blacke, and therefore not so much used to be eaten, but (as I said before) they make the fairest carnation colour in the world.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Tornesole. Chap.49.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,

Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597


Of Tornesole. Chap.49.

The kindes.
There be fiue sorts of Tornsole, differing one from another in many notable points, as in greatnesse and finalnesse, in colour of flowers, in forme and shape.



The description
1 The great Tornesole hath straight rounde stalkes couered with a white hairie cotton, especially about the top whitish leaves, soft and hairie in handling; in shape like the leaues of Basill: the flowers growe at the top of the branches, in colour white, thicke togither in rowes upon one side of the stalke, which stalk---oth bende or turne backwards like the taile of a scorpion: the roote is small and hard.

2 The small Tornesole hath many little and weake brunches trailing upon the grounde, whereupon fo growe finall leaues like those oft he lesser Basill. The flowers do growe at the endes of the tender braunches, graie of colour, with a little spot of yellow in the middest, the which turneth into crooked tailes like those of the precedent.



The description
3 Hairie Tornesole hath likewise manie feeble and weake braunches trailing upon the grounde, set with small leaues lesser then the small Tornsole: among which groweth the seede in small chassie huskes which do not turne backe like the taile of a scorpion; which mooueth me to thinke it a kinde of small water Chickweede.

4 The upright Tornsole hath a stalk of two foote high, set with rough hairie leaues, couered with a cottonie downe, not unlike to the leaues of vipers Buglosse. The stalke deuideth it selfe into sundrie small braunches towards the top; the flowers final and idle. The seede is inclosed in little rounde vessels like those of dogs Mercurie.

5 This kinde of Tornsole hath leaues verie like to those of the great Tornsole, but of a blacker greene colour: the flowers be yellow, after which commeth out the fruite hanging upon small footestalkes three square, and in euery corner there is a small seede like those of the Tythimales; the roote small and threddie.

The place
Tornsole, as Dioscorides saith, doth growe in fennie grounds & neere unto pooles and lakes. They are straungers in Englande as yet: It doth growe about Montpelier in Languedock, where it is had in great use to staine and die clouts withal, wherwith through Eurioe meate is coloured.

The time.
They flourish especially in the sommer solstice, or about the time when the sunne entreth into Cancer.

The names.
The Græcians call it Heliotropium: the Latines keepe these names Heliotropium magnum, and Scorpiurum: of Ruellius Herba Cancri: it is named Heliotropium, not bicause it is turned about at the daily motion of the sunne, but by the reason it flowreth in the sommer solstice, at which time the sunne being farthest gone from the æquinoctiall circle, returneth to the same; & Scropiurum of the twiggie tops that bowe backewarde like a scorpions taile: of the Italians Tornesol bobo: in French Tournsol: it is also called Herba Clitia, whereof the poet hath these verses:
Herba velut Clitia semper petit obuia solem,
Sic pia mens Christum quo prece spectet habet.


The nature.
Tornsole as Paulus Ægineta writeth, is hot and drie, and of a binding facultie.

The vertues.
A good handfull of the great Tornsole boiled in wine and drunke, doth gently purge the body of hot cholericke humours and tough clammic or slimie flegme.
The same is boiled in wine and drunke is good against the stinging of Scorpions or other venemous beasts, and is very good to be applied outwardly upon the griese or wounde.
The seede stamped and laide upon warts and such like excrescens or superfluous outgrowings, causeth them to fall away.
The small Tornsole and his seede boiled with Hysope, Cresses, and saltpeter and drunke, driueth foorth flat and round wormes.
With the small tornsole they in Fraunce doe die linnen rags and clouts into a perfect purple colour, wherewith cookes and confectionaries do colour iellies, wines, meates, and sundrie confectures: which clouts in shops be called Tornesole after the name of the herbe.


The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of the Gall tree. Chap. 34.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,

Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597



Of the Gall tree. Chap. 34.




The kindes.
Of trees that bring foorth Gals, there be diuers sorts, as may appeere by the diuers formes and sorts of Gals set foorth in this present Chapter, which may serue for their seuerall distinctions, whereof some bring foorth Acornes, likewise, and some nothing but Gals: the figures of some sere of the trees shall giue you sufficient knowledge of the rest, for all the Acorne, or Maste trees bring foorth Gals: but those trees whose figures we haue set foorth do beare those Gals fit for medicine, and to thicken skins with.

Dioscorides and Galen make but two sorts of Gals, the one little, yellow, full of holes, and more spungie in the inner part: both of them rounde, hauing the forme of a little ball; and the other smooth and eeuen on the outside: since the later writers haue founde noe, some hauing certaine little knobs sticking foorth, like in forme to the Gall, which doth also cleane and growe without stalke to the lease. There is also founde a certaine excresense of a light greene colour, spungie, and waterie, in the middle whereof nowe and then is founde a little flie or worme: which soft ball in hot countries, doth many times become harde, like the little smooth Gall, as Theophrastus saith.

The description
The Gall tree groweth up to a sufficient height, hauing a verie faire trunke or bodie; whereon are placed long twiggie branches, bringing foorth cerie faire leaues, broade, and nicked in the edges like the teeth of a sawe: among which come foorth Acornes, although the figure expresse not the same, like those of the Oke, and likewise a woodie excrescence, which we name the Gall, hauing certaine small eminences or bunches on the outside, growing for the most part upon the slender branches without stalkes, and sometimes they grow at the endes thereof, which by the heate of the sunne are harder, greater, and more solide in one countrey then another, according to the soile and clymate.

The lesser Gall tree differenth not from the former, sauing that it is altogither lesser: the fruite and Gals likewise lesser, wherein especially consisteth the difference.

The place
The Gals are founde in Italy, Spaine, and Bohemia, and most of the hot regions.

The time.
The Gall saith Pliny appeereth or commeth foorth when the sunne commeth out of the signe Gemini, and that generally in one night.

The names.
The Gall tree is called quarcus Robus, and Galla arbor: the Gal is called in Greeke. --- the apothecaries and Italians, keepe the name Galla for the fruite: in high Dutch Galapffell: in lowe Dutch Galnoten: in Spanish Agalla, Galba, and Bugaiha: in Frenxh Noix de Galle: in English Gaules and Gals.

The temperature and vertues.
The Gall called Omphacitis, as Galen writeth, is dry in the thirde degree, and colde in the second: it is a very harsh medicine, it fastneth and draweth together faint and slacke parts, as the ouergrowings in the flesh, it repelleth and keepeth backe rheumes and such like fluxes, and doth effectually dry up the same, especially when they haue a descent into the gummes, almonds of the throte, and other places of the mouth.

The other Gall doth dry and also binde; but so much lesser, by howe much the harsh or choking qualitie is diminished: being boiled, beaten, and also applied in maner of a plaister it is laide with good successe upon the inflammations of the fundament and falling downe thereof: it is boiled in water if there be need of little astriction; and in wine, especially in austere wine, if more need require.

Gals are very profitable against the dysonterie, and the Coeliacke passion being drunk in wine, or the powder thereof strowed upon meates.

Gals are used in dying and colouring of sundrie things, and in making of inke.

Last of all burnt Gals do receiue a further facultie to stanch blood, and are of thinne parts, and of greater vertue to dry then be those that are not burnt; they must be laide upon hot burning coles untill they come to be thorow hite, and then are they to be quenched in vineger nad wine.

Moreouer gals are good for those that be troubled with the bloudy flixe and common laskes, being taken with wine or water, and also applied or used in meats: last of all these are to be used as oft as neede requireth to dry and binde.

Oke apples are much of the nature of gals, yet are they farre inferiour unto them, and of lesser force.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of the Scarlet Oke. Chap. 30.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,

Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597

Of the Scarlet Oke. Chap. 30.

The kindes.
Although Theophrastus hath made mention but of one of these Holme or Hollie Okers onely, yet hath the later age set downe two kindes thereof; one bearing the scarlet graine, and the other onely the Acorne; which thing is not contrary to Dioscorides his opinion, for he intreateth of that which beareth the Acorne in his first booke among ---- or the Okes; and the other he describeth in hi fourth booke under the title --- or Coccus baphice.

The description
The oke which beareth the scarlet graine is a small tree and at euery corner one sharpe prickle, in maner of the smoother Holly: among which commeth sometimes (but not often) small Acornes, standing in little cups or husks, armed with prickes as sharpe as thornes, and of a bitter taste. Besides the Acornes, there is found cleauing unto the woody branches, a certaine kinde of berried, or rather an excrescence, of the substace of the Oke apple, & of the bignes of a Pease, at the first white, and of the colour of ashes when they be ripe, in which are engendred little Maggots, which seeme to be without life, untill they seele the heate of the sunne, and then they creepe, and seeke to flie away. ut people of the coutrie (which make a gaine of them) fo watch the time of their flying, euen as we do Bees, which they then take & put into a linnen bag, wherein they shake and boule them up and downe untill they be dead, which they do make up into great lumpes oftentimes, and likewise sell them to Diers, and such like apart, euen as they were taken foorth of the bag, whereof is made the most perfect Scarlet.



The place
This Oke groweth in Languedocke, and in the countries thereabout, and also in Spaine: but it beareth not hte Scarlet graine in all places, but in those especially, which lie towards the Midland sea, and which be subject to the scorching heate of the sunne, as Carolus Clusius wittnesseth, and not there alwaies; for when the tree waxeth olde, it groweth to be barren. Then do the people cut and lop it downe, that after the young shootes have attained to two or three yeeres growth, it becommeth fruitfull againe.

Petrus Bellonius in his bookes of Singularities sheweth, that Coccus Baphicus or the Scarlet graine, doth growe in the Holy land, and neere to the lake which is called the Sea of Tiberides, and that upon little trees, whereby the inhabitants get great store of wealth, who separate the husks from the pulpe of Magots, and sell this being made up into bals or lumps, much decree than the emptic shels or husks.

On this graine also Pausanius hath made mention in his tenth booke, and sheweth, that the tree which bringeth foort this graine, is not great, and also groweth in Phocis, which is a countrie in Macedonia neere to the Boeotians, not far from the mountaine Parnassus.

Theophrastus weiteth, that --- or the Scarlet oke is a great tree, and riseth up to the height of the common Oke: amongst which writers there is some contratictic. Petrus Bellonius reporteth it is a little tree, and Theophrastus a great one, which may chaunce according to the foyle and climate: for that upon the stonie mountaines cannot grow to that greatnes, as those in the fertill grounds.

The time.
The little graines or berries which growe about the boughes, --- in to appeere especially in the spring, when the Southwest windes do blow. The flowers fall and are ripe in Iune, togither with the Maggots growing in them, which receiuing life by the heate of the sunne, fo foorthwith flie away (in manner of a moth or Butterflie) unlesse by the care and diligence of the keepers, they be killed by much and often shaking them togither, as aforesaid.

The tree or shrub hath his leaues alwaies greene: the Acornes be very late before they be ripe, seldome before new come up in their place.

The names.
The Scarlet Oke is called in Greeke ---: in Latine Ilex: the later writers Ilex Coccigera, or coggifera: in Spanish coscoia: for want of a fit English name, we haue thought good to christen it by the name of Scarlet Oke, or Scarlet Holme Oke: for Ilex is named of some in English Holme, which signifieth Holly or Hulner. But this Ilex, as well as those that follow, might be called Holme Oke, Hulner Oke, or Holly Oke, for difference from the shrub or hedge tree Agrifolium, which is simply called Holme, Holly and Huluer.

The graine or berried that serueth to die with, is roperly called in Greeke ---: in Latin Coccus infectoria, or Coccum infectorium: Pliny also nameth it cusculium, or as most do reat it Quisquilrum; the same author saith, that it is likewise named Scolecion, or Maggot berrie.

The Arabians and the Apothecaries do acknowledge it by the name of Chesmes, Chermes and Kermes. They are deceiued who thinke that Chesmet doth differ from Infectorium Coccum: it is called in Italian Grano di tinctori: in Spanish Grana de tintoreros: in hight dutch Scharlachbeer: in French Vermillon and Graine d'escarlate: in English after the Dutch Scarlet Berrie, or Scarlet graine, and after the Apothecaries worde Coccus Baphicus, the Maggot within is that which is named Cutchonele as most do deeme.

The Acorne or fruite hereof is called of diuers, as Theophrastus saith, --- Acylum,

The temperature and vertues.
This graine is astringent, and somethat botter, and also dry without sharpenes and biting: therefore saith Galen it is good for great wounds and finewes that be hurt, if it be laide thereon; some temper it with vineger; others with Oxymell, or syrupe of vineger.

It is commended and giuen by the later Phisitions to staie the menses: it is also counted among those simples which be cordials and good to strenghten the hart. Of this graine that noble and famous confection Alkermes made by Arabians, hath taken his name, which many do highly commend against the infirmities of the hart: notwithstanding it was chiefely deuised in the beginning for purging of melancholy, which thing is plainly declared by the great quantitie of Lapis Lazulus added thereto: and therefore seeing that this stone hath in it a venemous qualitie, and likewise a propertie to purge melancholie, it cannot of it selfe be good for the hart, but the other things be good, which be therefore added, that they might desende the hart from the hurts of this stone, and correct the malice thereof.

This composition is commended against the trembling and shaking of the hart, and for swounings and melancholike passions, and sorrow proceeding of no euident cause: it is reported to recreate minde, and to make a man merric and ioyfull.

It is therefore good against melancholicke diseases, vaine imaginations, sighings, greese and sorrowe without manifest cause, for that it purgeth away melancholike humours: after this maner it may be comfortable for the hart, and delightfull to the minde, in taking away the materiall cause of sorrow: neither can it otherwise strenghthen a wake and feeble hart, unlesse this stone called Lapis Cyaneus be quite left out.

Therefore he that is purposed to use this composition against beatings and throbbings of the hart and swounings, and that not as a purging medicine, shall do well and wisely by leauing out the stone Cyaneus: for this being taken in a little waight, or small wuantitie, cannot purge at all, but may in the meane season trouble and torment the stomacke, and withall thorow his sharpe and venemous qualitie (if it be oftentimes taken) be very offensiue to the guts and intrails, and by this meanes bring more harme then good.

Moreouer it is not necessarie, no nor expedient, that the bristle died with Conhenele called Chermes, as Apothecaries tearme it, should be added to this composition: for this bristle is not died without auripigmentum, called also Orpiment, and other pernitious things ioined therewith, whose poisonsome qualities are added to the iuices, togither with the colour, if either the bristle or died silke be boiled in them.

The berries of the Cochenele must be taken by themselves, which alone are sufficient inough to die the iuices, and to impart unto them their vertue: neither is it likewise needfull to boile the raw bristle togither with the graines, as most Phisitions thinke: this maybe left out, for it maketh nothing at all for the strenghthening of the hart.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Buckthorne, or laxatiue Ram. Chap. 27.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,

Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597



Rhamnus solutinus. Buckthorne.


Of Buckthorne, or laxatiue Ram. Chap. 27.

The description
Buckthorne groweth in manner of a shrub or hedge tree; his trunke or bodie is often as big as a mans thigh; his wood or timber is yellow within, and his barke is of the colour of a Chestnut, almost like the barke of the Cherrie tree. The branches are beset with leaues that are somewhat round like the leaues of the Crab or Wilding tree: among which come foorth thornes which are hard pricklie. The flowers are white and small, which being vaded, there succeed little round berries, greene at the first, but afterwards blacke, whereof that excellent greene colour is made, which the painters and limners do call Sap greene; but these berries before they be ripe do make a faire yellow colour, being steeped in vineger.

The place
Buckthorne groweth neere the borders of fields in hedges, woods, and in other untoiled places: it delighteth to growe in riuers and in water ditches. It groweth in Kent in sundrie places, as at Farningham upon the conie burrowes belonging somtime to M. Sibill, as also upon conie burrowes in Southfleere, especially in a small and narrow lane leading from the house of Master William Swan unto ongfield downes; also n the hedge upon the right hand at Dartford townes end towards London, and in many places more upon the chalkie bankes and hedges.

The time.
It flowreth in May, the berries be ripe int he fall of the leafe.

The names.
The later Herbarists call it in Latine Rhamnus solutinus, bicause it is ser with thornes, like as is the Ram, and beareth purging verries. Mathiolus nameth it Spina infectoria; Valerius Cordus Spina Cerus, and diuers call it Burgispina. It is termed in high Dutch Creukbeer weghdom: in Italian Spino Merlo; Spino Zerlino, Spino Cernino: In English Laxatiue Ram, Waythorne, and Buckthorne: in lowe Dutch they call the fruit or berries Rhtinbesien, that is, as though you should say in Latine, Bacca Rhenana, in English Rheinberries: in French Nerprun.

The temperature.
The berries of this Thorne, as they be in taste bitter and binding, so be they also hot and drien in the second degree.

The vertues.
The same do purge and voide by the stoole ticke stegme, and also cholerike humours: they are giuen being beaten into powder from one dram to a dram and a halfe: diuers do number the berries, who giue to strong bodies from sisteene to twenty or moe; but it is better to breake them and boyle them in fat flesh broth without salt, and to giue the broth to drinke: for so they purge with lesser trouble and sewer gripings.

There is pressed foorth of the ripe berries a iuice, which being boyled with a little Allum is used of painters for a deepe greene, which they do call Sap greene.

The berries which be as yet unripe, being dried and infused or steeped in water, do make a faire yellow colour, but if they be ripe they make a greene.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of Italian Rocket. Chap. 24.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,

Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597

Of Italian Rocket. Chap. 24.





The description
Italian Rocket hath long leaues cut into many parts or diuisions like those of the Ashe tree, resembling Ruellius his Bucker horne: among which rise up stalkes weake and tender, but thicke and grosse, two foote high, garnished with many small yellowish flowers like the middle part of Tansie flowers, of a naughtie fauour or smell. The seede is small like sande or dust, in taste like Rocker seede, whereof in truth we suspect it to be a kinde. The roote is long and wooddie.

Crambling Rocker hath many large leaues cut ito sundry sections, deepely thrust to the middle ribbe, braunched like the homes of a stag or hart, among which there do rise up long, fac & fleshie stalkes two cubites high, lying flat upon the grounde by reason of his weake and feeble braunches. The flowers growe at the top clustering thicke togither, yellow of colour like those of Diers weede. The seede is like the former.

The place
These plants do growe in sandie, stonie, grauely, and chalkie barren grounds. I aue founde them in sundrie places of Kent, as at Southfleete neere master Swannes house upon longfielde downes, which is a chalkie and hilly ground, very barren, where grasse will scarsely growe or anything else but Iuniper and these plants. They grow at Greene-hithe upon the hils neere unto the village, and in other places of Kent: but I haue not seene them else-where, although I doubt not but that they grow in other places of this lande.

The time.
These plants do flourish in Iune, Iuly, and August.

The names.
The first is called of Plinie, Rheseda, Eruca peregrina, and Eruca Cantabrica: in English Italian Rocket.

The second is called likewise of Plinie, Rheseda and Rheseda maxima, of Anguillara Pignemon whereof I find nothing extant woorthie the memorie, either of temperature of vertues.

The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Of base Broome, or greening Weede. Chap. 16.

Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,

Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597

Of base Broome, or greening Weede. Chap. 16.





The kindes.
There be diuers sortes of Greene weede, or Greening weede, some of our countrie, and others of beyond the seas, which here are strangers.

The description
1. This base kinde of Broome called Greene weede or Diers weede, hath many tough branches proceeding from a woodie roote: whereon do growe great store of leaues, of a deepe greene colour, somewhat lon like those of Flaxe. The flowers growe at the top of the branches not much unlike the leaues of Broome, but smaller; of an exceeding faire yellow colour, which turne into small flat cods, wherein is contained a little flat seede.

2. Carolus Clusius setteth footh another kind of Broome, which Dodonaus calleth Genista inctoria being another sort of Diers weede: it groweth like the Spanish Broome, upon whose branches do growe long and small leaues like Flaxe, greene on the upperside, and of an hoaric shining colour on the other. The flowers growe at the top of the stalkes, spike fashion, in forme and colour like the former: the rootes are thicke and woodie.

3. Carolus Clusius setteth foorth two kindes of Broome, which are reckoned among the Greening weedes or Diers weedes, and are thought both by Plinie and Dioscorides to be of that kinde. The first is a lowe and base plant, creeping and lying flat upon ground, whose long branches are nothing else, but as it were stalkes consisting of leaues thicke in the midst, and thing about the edges, and as it were diuided with small nickes; at which place it beginneth to continue the same leafe unto the end, and so from leafe to leafe, untill it haue inchreased a great sort, all which do as it were make one stalke; and hath no other leaues, saying that in some of the nicks r diuisions, there commeth foorth a small leafe like a little eare. At the end of those flat and leafed stalkes come foorth the flowers, much like the flowers of the common Greening weede, but lesser, and of a yellow colour, which turne into small cods. The rootes are very long, tough and woodie, full of fibres, closing at the top of the roote from whence they proceede as from one body.

4. This kinde of Greene weede called of some Chamaspartium, hath a thicke woodie roote: from which riseth up diuers long leaues, consisting as it were of many peeces set togither like a paire of Beades (as may better be perceived by the figure, than expressed by words) green on the upperside, and whitish underneath, very tough, and as it were of a rushie substance: among which rise up very small naked rushic stalks; on the top whereof groweth an eare of spike of a chaffie matter, having here and there in the said eare diuer's yellow flowers like Broome, but very small or little.

5. The 5th Greenweede hath a woody tough roote, with certaine strings annexed thereto from which rise up diuers long, flat leaues, tough and very harde, consisting as it were of many little leaues, set one at the end of another, making of many one entire leafe, of a greene colour: among which come foorth diuers naked hard stalkes, very small and stiffe, on the tops whereof stand spikie eares of yellowe flowers, like those of Broome, in shape like that great three leafed graffe, called Alopecuroides, or like the Foxetaile grasse: after which come flat cods, wherein is inclosed small seede like to Tares both in taste and forme.

6. This differenth not from the precedent, in stalkes, rootes, and leaues: the flowers consist of a flockie sort matter, not unlike to the grassie tuft of Foxetaile, resembling the flower of Lagopus, called in Latine Pes Leporis, or Hares foote, wherein it chiefly differeth from the other of his kind.

The place
The first being our common Diers weede, groweth in most fertill pastures and fields almost euerywhere. The rest are strangers in England.

The time.
They flower from the beginning of Iuly to the end of August.

The names.
The first of these Greeneweeds is named of most Herbarists Flos Tinctorim, but more rightlie Genista Tinctoria: of this Pliny hath made mention; the Greeneweedes saith he, fo growe to the clothes with: in his 18 booke 16. chapter. It is called in high Ducth F[?]erblumen, and Ackerb[?]re: in Italian corretta, and Cosaria, as Mathiolus writeth in his chapter of Lysmachia, or Loosestrife: in English Diers Greening Weede, Base Broone, and Woodwaxen.
The rest we referre to their seuerall titles.

The temperatures and vertues.
These plants are like unto common Broome in bitternes, and therefore are hot and drie in the second degree: they are likewise thought to be in vertues equall; notwithstanding their use is not so well knowne, and therefore not used at all, where the other may be had: we shall not neede to speak of the use that Diers make thereof, being a matter impertinent to our Historie.