Scientific American 4, 13.10.1849
Madder is another stuff used for dyeing red on woollen, silk and cotton. On wool it is dyed by having your goods exceedingly clean and preparing them in alum, in the boiler, for about three-quarters of an hour, at the rate of 4 oz. alum to the pound of wool; the goods are then taken out and well washed. The madder (fine crop) ought to be raised at the rate of one half pound to the pound, an it ought to be steeped in bran the night before using, as a slight fermentation is excited with the bran and madder which extracts all the fine color out of the madder, and being put into the boiler cold and brought up gradually to the spring of the boil, the goods working at the same time, a fine rich color goes on gradually, which is not so readily to tbe the case in any other process. Never bring the madder above the spring of the boil, or a coarse brownish color will also come out of it, and dull your red. Madder is used most extensively in cotton dyeing, but not much on wool, although it is the most permanent of all reds.