The London Encyclopædia: Part II. The Practise of Dyeing. Of Dyeing Orange.
The London Encyclopædia, or Universal Dictionary of Science, Art, Literature, And Practical Mechanics, Comprising A Popular View of The Present State of Knowledge.
By The Original Editor of The Encyclopædia Metropolitana, Assisted By Eminent Professional And Other Gentlemen.
In Twenty-Two Volumes
Printed For Thomas Tegg, 73, Cheapside;
R. Griffin & Co., Glasgow; Tegg and Co., Dublin; Also J. & S. A. Tegg, Sydney and Hobart Town.
Part II. The Practise of Dyeing. Of Dyeing Orange.
258. Of Dyeing Wool Orange. - Orange colors are produced by the mixture of red and yellow; and, by varying the proportions of the ingredients, an almost endless variety of shades may be obtained.
Poerner describes a great many varieties which he obtained by employing weld, saw-wort, dyer's broom, and some other yellow substances; as also by introducing into the preparation of the cloth, or into the bath, tartar, alum, sulphate of zinc, or sulphate of copper.
Different colors may in like manner be procured from the madder, which is associated with yellow substances. It is thus that the mordores and the cinnamons are dyed; colors commonly formed in two baths. The maddering is first given, preceded by a bath of alum and tartar as for ordinary maddering; and then a bath of weld is employed.
For cinnamon a weaker maddering is given, and commonly a bath is used which had served for the mordors. The proportions are varied according as the red or the yellow is wished to predominate. Sometimes nut-galls are added, and sometimes the color is deepened by a browning.
Occasionally the sole object is to give a reddish tone to the yellow; the stuff just dyed yellow may, in this case, be passed through a bath of madder, more or less charged according to intention.
Brasil-wood is likewise employed along with the yellow substances, and sometimes it is associated with cochineal and madder.
When, instead of weld or other yellow substances, root of walnut, walnut-peels, or sumach, are used, tobacco, snuff, chestnuet, musk colors &c., are produced.
259. Of Dyeing Silk Orange. - Morrones, cinnamons, and all the intermediate shades are given to silk, by logwood, Brasil, and fustic - a bath is prepared by mixing decoctions of these three woods made separately; the proportion of each is varied according to the shade required, but that of fustic ought to prevail; the bath should be of a moderate temperature; and the silk, after being scoured and alumed in the usual manner, is immersed in it. The silk is turned on the skein sticks in the bath, and when taken out, if the color be uniform, it is wrung and dipped in a second bath of the three ingredients, the proportions of which are regulated according to the effect of the first bath, in order to obtain the shade required.
For some colors blue is united to red and yellow, it is thus olives are produced: a blue ground is first given, then the yellow dye, and lastly, a slight maddering. Olive may be dyed without using the blue vat, by dipping the silk in a very strong weld bath, after being first alumed; to this a decoction of logwood is afterwards added, and when the silk is dipped, a little solution of alkali is put in, which turns it green, and gives the silk the olive color. The silk is repeatedly dipped in this bath until it has acquired the proper shade.
260. For the color termed russet olive, or rotten olive, fustet and logwood, without alkali, are added to the bath after the welding. If a more reddish color be wished for, only logwood is added. A kind of reddish olive is also made by dyeing the silk in a bath of fustet, to which more or less sulphate of iron and logwood are added.
261. Of Dyeing Cotton and Linen Orange. - The usual combinations of scarlet and [...] are produced with difficulty. On this [...] Dr. Bancroft remarks, that, as cochineal and the [tin?] mordant cannot be advantageously employed [to?] dye linen or cotton, its is necessary for those [sub?]stances solely to rely on the aluminous [mordants?] and to select the red coloring matter from [...] dye stuffs, especially from madder, with [...] the yellow of weld, quercitron bark, or [...] may be combined in such proportions as [...] sufficient for the required color. M. Berthollet gives some processes for colors, which he [...] as mixtures of red and yellow, though [...] them may more properly he considered [browns? ...] green. The various shades of morrone [...] given to cotton, by first galling, and then dipping it in a bath of acetate of iron, formed by the pyroligneous acid, and afterwards in a bath of [...] and verdigris, after which it is dyed with [fustic?] sometimes with the addition of soda and [...]. It is then completely washed, passed through a strong madder bath; then dipped in a weak solution of sulphate of copper; and, lastly, passed through a bath containing soap.
263. The shades cinnamon and [...] are thus given: the stuffs are first dyed with verdigris and weld, then dipped in a solution of sulphate or acetate of iron, out of which they are wrung and dried. After this they are [...] allowing three ounces of galls to each pound a stuff, again dryed, alumed, and passed through a madder bath. They are then washed and immersed in a warm soap lie, through which they are turned till the color is sufficiently bright.
263. The shades of color usually denominated gray, have already been treated of, and the processes for dyeing them need not here be repeated.
264. Several highly respectable writers [...] done great justice to the subject of dyeing have connected with their treatises on it a [...] view of the process of calico printing: we should have followed their example in the [present? ...]stance, had we not considered the subject, [...] present highly improved statem as [...]tinct notice, which will be found in another part of our work.